Mcm301 Assignment 2 Solution & Discussion Fall 2017  Due Date 27 Nov 2017

Introduction
Q. No.1.
Suppose you are invited by an XYZ College to deliver a speech on the prevention of dengue
in Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa. In this regard, plan your speech according to the given pattern and
write about 300 words on it.
 Select a catchy title. (Other than the main heading given in the above text).
 Introduction.
 Body.
 Conclusion. Marks: 1+3+6+2
Note:
 To the point details are required.
 Be concrete and valid.
 Avoid copying, write in your own words.
Q. No.2.
No doubt that Speaking skills are key factor of communication, but listening skills are equally
important. Elaborate the statement in best of your understanding. Marks: 08
Note: Copied material will be graded “Zero”.
Schedule
Opening Date and Time 21st, Nov, 2017 At 12:01 A.M. (Mid-Night)
Due Date and Time 27th, Nov, 2017 At 11:59 P.M. (Mid-Night)
Note: Only in the case of Assignment, 24 Hrs extra / grace period after the above mentioned
due date is usually available to overcome uploading difficulties which may be faced by the
students on last date. This extra time should only be used to meet the emergencies and above
mentioned due dates should always be treated as final to avoid any inconvenience.
Communication Skills MCM301
Department of Mass Communication
Virtual University of Pakistan SEMESTER FALL 2017
ASSIGNMENT NO.2 MARKS:20
Important Instructions:
Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting the assignment solution.
Deadline:
 Make sure that you upload the solution file before the due date. No assignment will be
accepted through e-mail once the solution has been uploaded by the instructor.
Formatting guidelines:
 Use the font style “Times New Roman” and font size “12”.
 It is advised to compose your document in MS-Word 2003.
 Use black and blue font colors only.
Solution guidelines:
 Use APA style for referencing and citation. For guidance search “APA reference style”
in Google and read various website containing information for better understanding or
visit http://linguistics.byu.edu/faculty/henrichsenl/apa/APA01.html
 Every student will work individually and has to write in the form of an analytical
assignment.
 Give the answer according to question, there will be negative marking for irrelevant
material.
 For acquiring the relevant knowledge don’t rely only on handouts but watch the video
lectures and use other reference books also.
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I am very pleased to attend the second ASEAN Dengue Day on behalf of WHO in Viet Nam.
The location of this launching ceremony in Kien Giang, in one of the most dengue affected provinces of Mekong delta regions is very appropriate. It is a place where in the past 30 years, dengue cases occur almost on a weekly basis.
Today, you are connected to all other ASEAN member states. They are organizing similar ceremonies and campaigns as the one here in Kien Giang today.
Before 1970, dengue affected only a few countries but since then it has spread dramatically around the word, and today, more than 40% of the worlds’ population is now at risk of dengue and 75% of cases are reported from the Asia Pacific region.
Dengue is one of the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne infectious diseases. This is no exception in ASEAN member states. The, dengue virus is evolving with increased frequency of outbreaks and expansion to new geographical areas. Just as with other infectious diseases, Dengue does not recognize national borders.
That is why the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, ASEAN and the World Health Organization, WHO joined forces in identifying priority actions and organizing this awareness raising event across the ASEAN nations.
Dengue is not an easy disease to prevent and control. Unfortunately, there is neither an effective vaccine for prevention nor a drug to kill the dengue virus. It requires a long term effort not only by governments but also by individuals and communities.
For the cure, fortunately, even though we do not have a specific drug to kill the dengue virus, we can save lives through a combination of existing treatments if patient seeks treatment before it is too late. Viet Nam has been very successful in promoting dengue diagnosis and treatment and has reduced dengue mortality significantly to 61 deaths in 2011 across the country. This is a result of the tremendous effort of Viet Nam’s Government and health care workers. I would like to commend them for that.
Prevention of dengue infection on the other hand, has not been as successful and this is reflected in the increased number of dengue cases and a rapid geographical spread of the disease in all countries in the region.
Why it is difficult to control and prevent? There are many reasons but one important factor is the breeding site of mosquitoes.
In order to control and prevent dengue, it is important to control mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus and to do so, it is important to eliminate the environment where mosquitos lay their eggs and where larvae thrive until they reach adulthood.
Unlike mosquitoes that transmit Malaria, mosquitoes that transmit Dengue lay their eggs in small containers filled with water that are often found in individual households. This means that without individual household efforts to eliminate these breeding sites it is not possible to effectively control the spread of dengue.
Mosquitoes that breed in your home, may infect your neighbors with dengue. In other words, your individual effort to control the mosquito population is necessary to prevent and control the spread of dengue in your community. At the same time, community action can provide support to individuals to keep their households mosquito free.
Ladies and gentlemen, Dengue remains a public health challenge for the Western Pacific Region and its control is everyone’s responsibility. While individual households and communities make their effort, government must continue its investment in community’s prevention and control efforts and to improve dengue diagnostic and surveillance system.
WHO also strongly encourages Viet Nam’s Ministry of Health to continue to share important country information on dengue through ASEAN and WHO’s regional mechanism in order to contribute to early detection and response across the western pacific region.
Addressing common threats in a united and coordinated way will maximize our region’s resources, secure our region’s health. WHO will continue to work closely work with the Ministry of Health in support of dengue control and prevention activities in Viet Nam.
Thank you very much.
ESSAY ON DENGUE FEVER (530 words)
OUTLINES
Introduction
History and prevalence of dengue in different countries
Symptoms
Causes
Treatment
Conclusion
Nowadays many people suffer from dengue. Dengue fever is an
infectious disease carried by mosquitoes and caused by any four related dengue
viruses. This disease used to be called break-bone fever because it sometimes
causes severe joint and muscle pain. Dengue fever is a quite dangerous febrile
(Feverish) disease can be found in the tropics and Africa. Dengue fever is
transmitted by Aedes Aegypti mosquito, which also transmits diseases as yellow
fever.
Health experts have known about dengue fever from more than
200 years. Dengue or dengue-like epidemics were reported throughout the 19th
and early 20th centuries in America, southern Europe, north Africa,
the eastern Mediterranean, Asia and Australia and various Islands in the Indian
Ocean, the south and central Pacific and the Caribbean. It has steadily
increased in both incidence and distribution over the past 40 years. Annually,
it is estimated that there are 20 million cases of dengue infection, resulting
in around 24,000 deaths. Dengue fever is a flu-like viral disease common
throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world, mainly in
urban and pre-urban areas. Today, it afflicts (cause physical pain and
suffering) an estimated 50 million to 100 million in the tropics.
The symptoms of dengue
fever are severe headache, pain in the muscles and joints, and rash that can be
described as small red spots. Some patients experience gastritis, diarrhea,
vomiting and abdominal pain. Dengue fever usually starts suddenly with a high
fever, headache, pain behind the eyes, and pain in the muscles and joints. A
rash usually appears 3 to 4 days after the start of the fever. Nausea, vomiting
and loss of appetite are common.
Each type of the dengue virus is re-emerging worldwide,
especially in the western hemisphere. Researches have shown that several
factors are contributing to the resurgence dengue fever such as uncontrolled
urbanization, increased international travel, substandard socio-economic
conditions, and finally global warming. Global warming has shown to be a major
contributor to the spread of dengue fever. Global warming can cause dry spells
in some countries and increased rainfall and humidity in others. The dry spells
reduce small medium bodies of water like springs and ponds to small puddles
that become potential breeding ground for mosquitoes. Likewise increased
rainfall and humidity also leads to collection of water that affords possible
breeding grounds for mosquitoes.
Dengue is spread by the Aedes Aegypti, a domestic, day-biting
mosquito that prefers to bite humans. They breed in clean water. Currently
there is no vaccine available to prevent dengue. Scientists are also trying to
invent a vaccine against dengue fever, but the researches are only at the stage
of experiments yet. The only treatment is rest and intake of plenty of fluids
like water, juices, milk etc.
The researchers therefore conclude that dengue fever should
be considered in the differential diagnosis of fever and rash in the returning
traveler. Dermatologists should be aware of the distinctive exanthema of dengue
fever. Recognition of the dengue fever rash permits a rapid and early
diagnosis, which is critical as dengue fever can progress to life-threatening
dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which is fatal and obviously
can cause death to the victim.
A very good morning to the honorable principal, teachers and members of the floor. I am standing here to talk to you on how to prevent dengue. As you may know, dengue fever is on the rise these days. Dengue fever is not something that you can take lightly. It can cause death. There are simple methods to prevent dengue from becoming worse.
Firstly, clear all clogged drains. Clogged drains are the easiest place for mosquitoes to breed. This is because clogged drains contain garbage and other things that cause water to be stagnant. After we clear the drain, check that there is no stagnant water so that mosquitoes will not breed.
Water is a place for mosquitoes to lay eggs. We must clear all places that contain water weekly. To make sure mosquitoes do not breed in our house, we must change the water in vases on alternate days. Also add granular insecticide to water to prevent mosquitoes larvae.
Apart from that, turn over all water storage containers. These containers can hold water which will be an ideal breeding site. Do not forget to cover these containers with lids.
Besides that, we must check the gutters on our roofs every month. Again this is to make there is no stagnant water.
Finally, use mosquito repellent whenever necessary to keep mosquito at bay. Please use mosquito repellent in the evening or at night before going to bed. Also if you live in a terrace house, let foggers into your house. It may help to kill mosquitoes away.
My dear friends, all the measures mentioned only takes 10 minutes. Everybody should play their role to prevent dengue and also to prevent aedes from breeding. In this way we can curb this menacing disease.
……………………………………………….

The mosquito-borne viral disease dengue has become one of the worst nightmares of the country. Also called 'breakbone fever' or 'dandy fever', it is caused by a family of viruses and is transmitted via aedes mosquitoes. Dengue begins suddenly, with more benign symptoms at first but which may get severe with time. The symptoms of the disease show in three to seven, and sometimes fifteen, days. They include fever, headache, joint and muscle pain, swollen lymph nodes and rashes. Recovery from dengue does not take over a week unless the condition gets severe. Mostly asymptomatic, if the condition gets critical, dengue can be life-threatening.
The fever of dengue can attack anyone but those with weaker immunity are more prone to the disease getting severe when they are attacked. As it is caused by any of the five serotypes of the aedes aegypti, also called the yellow fever mosquito, dengue can happen multiple times to the same person. However, the person acquires immunity to the particular viral serotype which has already attacked him.
A more severe form of dengue is dengue hemorrhagic fever. The symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever include headache, rashes and fever besides bleeding in the body (haemorrhage), formation of red splotches on the skin, black coloured stool, bleeding in gums or nose and a weakened immunity. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is life threatening and can lead to dengue shock syndrome, which is as severe and fatal.
Causes
Dengue is caused by the bite of one of the many types of mosquitoes in the genus Aedes Aegypti, which has white stripes on their bodies and legs. It is caused when the mosquito has previously bitten a person who was infected. The pathway which is followed in case of the incidence of dengue is 'infected person to mosquito to another person'.
The spread of the dengue virus cannot happen directly from one person to another. It is not contagious and cannot spread through direct human contact. It needs an aedes mosquito for the virus to be transferred.
Symptoms
The incubation period of dengue, that is, the time it takes for symptoms to show after the bite of a mosquito carrying virus, can be anywhere between three and fifteen days. The symptoms may show in parts as they begin with more benign symptoms such as headache, chills, fever, pain in eyes, loss of appetite and backache. Pain in joints also occurs in the first hours of the occurrence of dengue. One can experience fever of up to 104 degree Fahrenheit, low heart rate along with hypotension, that is low blood pressure. Besides these, there could be reddening of eyes, development of pink rashes on the face which may disappear and inflammation in lymph nodes and groin.
The above symptoms appear in the first phase of dengue, which ideally last for up to four days. The second phase will begin with a drop in body temperature and sweating. But before this, you may experience that your body temperature has come down to normal and you would feel relatively better, but this will not last for more than a day and would lead you to the second phase of dengue symptoms. The third phase may see a rapid rise in temperature again, with rashes developing all over your body but your face.
Doctors say that more than half people infected with the virus remain asymptomatic, that is, they do not show any symptoms.
If you are suspecting dengue, you can be on a lookout for the following signs, however they may or may not show:
- High fever
- Intense sweating
- Pain in joints
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss in appetite
- Drop in blood pressure
- Skin rash
- Swelling in hands and soles of feet
If the situation worsens, there can be a drop in the level of blood platelets, blood plasma leakage or the blood pressure can drop down to a critically low point which may lead a circulatory collapse (shock).
Prevention
As the dengue virus is mostly active during daylight hours, particularly early morning and late afternoon, special precautions should be taken during these times of the day. Tropical and sub-tropical areas are more prone to the disease, hence travelling from and to these regions should be avoided.
The following precautions can be adhered to in order to prevent the incidence of dengue:
- Ensure improved water storage
- Ensure proper waste disposal
- Strictly avoid water stagnancy
- Use mosquito repellents containing 10 per cent DEET but ensure that you read the warning label on them carefully
- Avoid dark colored clothing as mosquitoes are attracted to darker shades
- Wear light colored, full-sleeved clothes

- Opt for natural mosquito repellents like marigold and lemon grass

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