Assignment No. 1

Biochemistry-I (BIO202)

Spring 2016

 

 

Total Marks: 10

Due date: 19-05-2016

Instructions:

 

  • Make sure that you upload the solution file before due date. No assignment will be accepted through e-mail after the due date.

Formatting guidelines

  • Use the font style “Times New Roman” and font size “12”.
  • Compose your document in MS-Word, any file created in any format will not be accepted and marked zero.
  • Use black and blue font colors only.

Solution guidelines

  • To solve this assignment, you should have good command over Topics 10-42.
  • This is not a group assignment, it is an individual assignment so be careful and avoid    copying others’ work
  • Give the answer according to question only and avoid irrelevant details.

 

 Please note that your assignment will not be graded if:

  • It is submitted after due date
  • The file you uploaded does not open
  • The file you uploaded is copied from someone else
  • It is in some format other than .doc
  • Cheating or copying of assignment is strictly prohibited. The cheated or copied assignment will be marked ‘Zero’.

 

Question No. 1

a)      What do you know about carbohydrates? (01)

b)      Briefly discuss:

  1. Classification of Carbohydrates(2)
  2. Properties of Carbohydrates? (2)

 

Question No. 2

  1. Enlist 2 commonly used proteins in our diet. (1)
  2. Briefly discuss the composition of proteins? (2)
  3. Discuss about acidic and basic properties of proteins. (2)                             

 

  ---------------------------------------------GOOD LUCK----------------------------------------------

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Carbohydrates are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and milk products. Though often maligned in trendy diets, carbohydrates — one of the basic food groups — are important to a healthy life.

On the basis of the number of forming units, three major classes of carbohydrates can be defined: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

  • Monosaccharides or simply sugars are formed by only one polyhydroxy aldehydeidic or ketonic unit.
    The most abundant monosaccharide is D-glucose, also called dextrose.
  • Oligosaccharides are formed by short chains of monosaccharidic units (from 2 to 20) linked one to the next by chemical bounds, called glycosidic bounds.
    The most abundant oligosaccharides are disaccharides, formed by two monosaccharides, and especially in the human diet the most important are sucrose (common table sugar), lactose and maltose. Within cells many oligosaccharides formed by three or more units do not find themselves as free molecules but linked to other ones, lipids or proteins, to form glycoconjugates.
  • Polysaccharides are polymers consisting of 20 to 107 monosaccharidic units; they differ each other for the monosaccharides recurring in the structure, for the length and the degree of branching of chains or for the type of links between units.
    Whereas in the plant kingdom several types of polysaccharides are present, in vertebrates there are only a small number.
    Polysaccharides are defined

omopolysaccharides if they contain only one type of monosaccharide as starchglycogen and chitin;

eteropolysaccharides, instead, contain two or more different kinds (e.g. hyaluronic acid).

Note: the term “saccharide” derives from the greek word “sakcharon”, which means sugar.

Properties of Carbohydrates:

See attach PDF file

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Casen Found in Cow milk.

Ovalbumin found in Egg

Glutin in Wheat

The proteins are polymers made of monomers called the amino acids. There are 20 different kinds of amino acids that make up the proteins. However, they are present in different proportions in each of the proteins.

FSC ki book me ache se explained he, waha se pic b drwa kr len, and likh b waha se sakte,

Acid-Base Properties of Amino

Acids Amino acids can undergo an intramolecular acid–base reaction (proton transfer) Transfer of the H from the –COOH group to the –NH2 group forms a dipolar ion, an ion that has one (+) charge and one (-) charge. Neutral dipolar ions are known as zwitterions. (‘Zwitter’ meaning hybrid). • Because they are zwitterions, amino acids have many of the physical properties we associate with salts: – can form crystals – have high melting points – are soluble in water – not soluble in hydrocarbon solvents • In acidic solution (low pH), amino acid zwitterions accept protons on their basic –COO- groups to leave only the positively charged –NH3 + groups. • In basic solution (high pH), amino acid zwitterions lose protons from their acidic –NH3 + groups to leave only the negatively charged –COO- groups

The net charge of an amino acid molecule at any given moment depends on the particular amino acid and the pH of the medium. The pH at which the net positive and negative charges are equal is the amino acid’s isoelectric point (pI). At this point, the overall charge of all the amino acids in a sample is zero.

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