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VU Today's Final Term Paper For Fall 2013
Total Questions = 60 of Total 86 Marks
Total MCQ = 40 Each of 1 marks
Total Short Questions = 3 Each of 3 marks
Total Long Questions = 5 Each of 5 marks

1. Aslam and Majid are two colleagues. Their boss felt that Aslam was avoiding Majid. When the boss asked him the reason for his behaviour Aslam replied, “Majid is a chain Smoker that is why I avoid him”. If you are the boss, how would you analyze the attitude of Aslam on the basis of its three components i.e. cognitive, affective and behavioral? (5)

2. Explain the different dimensions through which globalization has impacted the organization’s environment. (5)

3. “Attracting good employees are as important as to retain them”. How would you justify this statement? (5)

4. Story telling has become an increasingly important way for organizations to transmit important values. Do you agree or not? Discuss. (5)

5. How a high performance organization can exceed customers’ expectations? (3)

6. Workspace design plays an important role in organizational environment. Does it have any impact on the productivity of employees? Discuss. (3)

7. What are some individual approaches for managing stress? (3)

8. Mr. Arsalan is a marketing manager of an electronics company. He usually follows group decision making in order to make important decision. The company faces a situation that is very important and in which decision is required on urgent basis. In this situation; what would you recommend that he should opt for group decision making or not? Give logical reason to support your argument. (3)

Superior Corporation faces inter-group & interpersonal conflicts. What can be the sources of such conflicts?

Conflict:

The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party

"A process which begins when one party perceives that the other is frustrated, or is about to frustrate, some concern of his (or her)”

Intergroup Conflict: conflict that occurs between groups or teams in an organization

Competition of resources
Task factors
Status struggle
Reward conflict
Organizational climate:

Interpersonal Conflict: conflict that occurs between two or more individuals.

The sources of interpersonal conflicts are:

1. Communication Differences.
2. Structural differences
3. Personal differences
4. Environmental stress

Mr. Arslan is not happy with the culture of organization and wants to improve it. What requirements he should consider to change organizational culture.

Organizational Culture is the set of values, often taken for granted, that help people in an organization understand which actions are considered acceptable and which are considered unacceptable.

Values are often communicated through stories and other symbolic means.

Concentrate on positive aspects. It is easier to enlarge the positive aspects than to get rid of the negative ones.
Enlist the commitment of the top of the organization. There should be a clear mission with concrete goals. The top management should be involved. Change may be proposed from within, quite often as the result of interaction with the outside world, but top management should be involved too.
Organize bottom-up participation of people when defining the problem, in the analysis and solution-formation phase.
Define only the outlines, let people participate in formulating what these outlines signify for their work.
External necessity. Look for an external necessity to change. New questions asked by target groups or donors can stimulate the organization to make the necessary change.

Critically analyze strengths & weakness of bureaucratic structure of organization

Organizational structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated.

Bureaucracy

A structure with highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization, much formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, decision making that follows the chain of command.

The strengths of a bureaucratic organization are:


· More control over the employees with clear rules and regulations 
· No confusion as the reporting relationships is clear and well defined. 
· The system is centralized and all the decisions can be monitored 
· There is standardization and everyone has to follow the same procedure

The weaknesses are:


The decision making and all the other processes are very slow
The jobs may become boring for the employees
The communication has to go through so many levels that it gets distorted.
Too much control discourages innovation and creativity.
There are too many levels in the hierarchy.
The bureaucracy itself encourages political behavior and people try to use other means to go up the hierarchy

Why is it important for managers to understand and recognize the stages of group development? Will his knowledge affect group's performance???

Stages of group development:

Forming:
Storming:
Norming:
Performing:
Adjourning:

Because a work team is a common arrangement within today's business organizations, managers need to understand group behavior and team concepts. Team building requires a manager to follow a systematic planning and implementation process to assess whether his or her team can improve the organization's goal attainment; remove barriers to team building; and build an effective team through training, empowerment, and feedback. Managers must also decide on team size and member roles to gain the maximum contribution from all members.

What is function of coaching in the process of performance management?

A process that encourages employees to accept responsibility for their own performance, to enable them to achieve and sustain superior performance and to treat them as partners in working toward organizational goals and effectiveness, Coaching often occurs within the context of an ongoing relationship between employee and supervisor. It has become increasingly clear over the years that employees who aspire to higher management levels in the organization often need the assistance and advocacy of someone higher up in the organization. When senior employee takes an active role in guiding another individual, we refer to this activity as mentoring and coaching. This can occur at any level and can be most effective when the two individuals do not have any type of reporting relationship.

How organization culture impact on the performance of the employee?

Organizational culture defines the way employees complete tasks and interact with each other in an organization. Organizational cultures can have varying impacts on employee performance and motivation levels. Oftentimes, employees work harder to achieve organizational goals if they consider themselves to be part of the corporate culture. Different cultures operating in one company can also impact employee performance. For example, if the organization maintains a reserved “talk when necessary” culture, employees may work accordingly; however, if the organization allows one area, say the sales team, to be outspoken and socially active, the organization may experience rivalries among areas. Thus, allowing an area to set up their own culture can affect the performance of the employees deployed elsewhere in the company.

• Allows employees to understand the firm’s history and current approach.

• Fosters commitment to corporate philosophy and values.

• Serves as a control mechanism for employee behaviors.

• Certain cultural types may produce greater effectiveness and productivity.

What are the Individual approaches to minimize the stress?

Effective individual strategies include implementing time management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training, and expanding the social support network.

• Practicing time management principles such as:

A. making daily lists of activities to be accomplished

B. prioritizing activities by importance and urgency

C. scheduling activities according to the priorities set

D. knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job during the high part of your cycle when you are most alert and productive

• Noncompetitive physical exercise has long been recommended as a way to deal with excessive stress levels.

• Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis, and biofeedback.

• Having friends, family, or work colleagues to talk to provides an outlet for excessive stress.

Can anyone survive if he/she rejects the core values?

The core values of an organization are those values we hold which form the foundation on which we perform work and conduct ourselves. Core values are the fundamental beliefs of a person or organization. The core values are the guiding principles that dictate behavior and action. Core values can help people to know what is right from wrong; they can help companies to determine if they are on the right path and fulfilling their business goals.

Describe important Steps to review the performance of employees

The primary goals of a performance evaluation system are to provide an equitable measurement of an employee’s contribution to the workforce, produce accurate appraisal documentation to protect both the employee and employer, and obtain a high level of quality and quantity in the work produced. To create a performance evaluation system

Develop an evaluation form.
Identify performance measures.
Set guidelines for feedback.
Create disciplinary and termination procedures.
Set an evaluation schedule.

Why People like Organic structure in these dynamic environments?

organic organization is characterized by “Flatness: communications and interactions are horizontal, Low specialization: knowledge resides wherever it is most useful, and Decentralization: great deal of formal and informal participation in decision making.”

Employees are often found working in groups and share input on tasks. There are usually teams that handle one task. Communication is open between employees, managers and executives though they are typically just known as ‘the owner’. There is a greater scale of verbal communication between parties. There is also more face-to-face time within the hierarchy of power. Organic organizations have quickly realized that a happy workplace makes for a happy employee.

Why Decision makers choose simple structure in small organizations?

It is the most widely used structure, since most organizations are small (less than 100 employees). This structure is utilized where an owner-manager makes most of the decisions. While this structure is relatively efficient from the standpoint of its flatness, it is difficult to maintain as the organization grows in both complexity and size.

Strengths:

Decisions are made quickly
Owner-manager is aware of what is going on in the organization
Owner-manager makes decisions based on what is best for overall organization
Describe globalization & its significance on OB?

Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world.

Organizational change is the adoption of an organizational environment for the sake of survival. The challenge which new economy brings to small businesses managers is the use of new business approach and the strong will for organizational changes and adaptation to global market demands. There are several types of organizational changes that can occur- strategic changes, organizational cultural changes; involve organizational structural change, a redesign of work tasks and technological changes. In line with these changes, there is strong expectation of employee to permanent improve their knowledge and become an integral part of successful business formula in order to respond to the challenges brought by the global economy. It means a request for learning organization which is characterized as an organization creating, gaining and transferring the knowledge, and thus constantly modifying the organizational behavior.

As Simple technology, the more mechanistic structure

The organization is hierarchical and bureaucratic. It is characterized by its (1) highly centralized authority, (2) formalized procedures and practices, and (3) specialized functions. Mechanistic organization is relatively easier and simpler to organize, but rapid change is very challenging.

Companies in a mechanistic organization structure typically hold tight control, over processes and employees; with an iron fist so to speak. Rules are implemented and rarely deviated from while there is also a very clear chain of command to delegate responsibilities and power throughout the organization. Again, it is manufacturing companies that are well known for this type of structure but there are other groups that benefit from mechanistic organization; like universities.

How many factors are involved in Stress?

Stress shows itself in a number of ways—physiological, psychological, and behavioral symptoms.

1. Physiological symptoms:

• Most of the early concern with stress was directed at physiological symptoms due to the fact that specialists in the health and medical sciences researched the topic.

• Physiological symptoms have the least direct relevance to students of OB.

2. Psychological symptoms:

Job-related stress can cause job-related dissatisfaction.

• Job dissatisfaction is “the simplest and most obvious psychological effect” of stress.

• Multiple and conflicting demands—lack of clarity as to the incumbent’s duties, authority, and responsibilities—increase stress and dissatisfaction.

• The less control people have over the pace of their work, the greater the stress and dissatisfaction.

3. Behavioral symptoms:

• Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, absence, and turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting, and sleep disorders.

• The stress-performance relationship is shown in Exhibit 19-11.

a. The logic underlying the inverted U is that low to moderate levels of stress stimulate the body and increase its ability to react.

b. Individuals then often perform their tasks better, more intensely, or more rapidly.

c. But too much stress places unattainable demands or constraints on a person, which result in lower performance.

d. Even moderate levels of stress can have a negative influence on performance over the long term as the continued intensity of the stress wears down the individual and saps his/her energy resources.

• In spite of the popularity and intuitive appeal of the inverted-U model, it doesn’t get a lot of empirical support.

As per Theories, what is Leader ship Traits?

Early studies identified during personal characteristics and traits that distinguish leaders from followers and effective from ineffective leaders.

They were concerned with leaders’ traits, the particular tendencies a person has to feel, think, and act in certain ways. The following traits have the strongest relationship to effective leadership:

_ Intelligence

_ Task-relevant knowledge

_ Dominance (the need to exert influence and control over others)

_ Self-confidence

_ Energy/activity levels

_ Tolerance for stress

_ Integrity and honesty

_ Emotional maturity

Although understanding leader characteristics is helpful, the trait approach is limited. Whether these traits are keys for becoming a leader or result from being a leader is unclear. The trait approach provides little guidance as to how to train or help leaders. Because traits are stable, individuals cannot change traits associated with leadership.

The trait approach fails to explain why or how effective leadership occurs. Many individuals who possess these traits never become leaders, and many leaders who possess them are ineffective. Researchers then considered other factors affecting leadership, such as leader behaviors.

Six traits on which leaders tend to differ from non-leaders are:

• Ambition and energy

• Desire to lead

• Honesty and integrity

• Self-confidence

• Intelligence

• Job-relevant knowledge.

What effect "Wide Span of control" has on Organization?

The number of subordinates a manager is expected to supervise. A wide span of control reduces expenses, but requires more management skill and may reduce effective feedback. A wide span of control is the number of people who is basically report to his one manager and it means the more people under the control of one manager that is called wide span of control.

Advantages

• Staff is empowered to make their own decisions and to carry out their own tasks without interference by managers.

• Less managers are required and wages are saved.

• Less levels of communication for decisions to pass through.

• High quality staff should exist.

Disadvantages

• Managers may make snap decisions as they are looking after too many employees.

• Managers time will be at a premium.

• Managers will have less time for planning.

• Subordinates may make decisions they are not trained to make.

What are the differences between Performance Management done by old organizations and new organizations?

Performance management is the process of motivating employees through setting goals, measuring progress, giving feedback, coaching for improved performance, and rewarding achievements.

In organization who manage change activities?

The change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change management team or project leader would follow to apply change management to a project or change. In an organization change agents are those who manage the change activities. Change agent is the individual or group who undertakes the task of introducing and managing a change in an organization. The change agent can be internal or external

The Change Agent

• Generators

• Key Change Agents

• Demonstrators

• Patrons

• Defenders

• Implementers

• External

• Internal

• Adopters

• Early Adopters

• Maintainers

• Users

What is training and development?

Training is an educational process. People can learn new information, re-learn and reinforce existing knowledge and skills, and most importantly have time to think and consider what new options can help them improve their effectiveness at work. Effective trainings convey relevant and useful information that inform participants and develop skills and behaviors that can be transferred back to the workplace

Organizational Development is a process that “strives to build the capacity to achieve and sustain a new desired state that benefits the organization or community and the world around them.” Organizational development (OD) is a term used to encompass a collection of planned-change interventions built on humanistic-democratic values that seek to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.

What is flextime? What are the advantages of flextime from an employee’s perspective and from management’s perspective?

Flextime is a scheduling arrangement that permits variations in an employee’s starting and departure times, but does not change the total number of hours worked in a week. Flextime may be applied to full-time and part-time positions.

Advantages to employees:

Rush Hours can be avoided.
Personal Matters can be sorted out without having to take time off.
A Job can be finished instead of being carried over to the next day. Extra hours put in on one day count towards the final target.
Advantages to management:

Absenteeism has been reduced in companies through flexible working.
Increase in Productivity 
Working Relations between employees and supervisors/managers can improve.

What are the sources of recruitment?

Recruitment is a process of finding, hiring and initiating the best qualified candidate. The recruitment process includes analyzing the requirements of a job, attracting employees to that job, screening and selecting applicants, hiring, and integrating the new employee to the organization.

Sources of Recruitment can be internal and external:

Internal Recruitment - is a recruitment which takes place within the concern or organization. Internal sources of recruitment are readily available to an organization.

Internal sources are primarily 3

Transfers
Promotions (through Internal Job Postings) and
Re-employment of ex-employees
External Recruitment - External sources of recruitment have to be solicited from outside the organization. External sources are external to a concern. But it involves lot of time and money.

Some of the external sources of recruitment include:

Advertisement.
Employment Agencies
Educational Institutions

How to build trust in a team?

Building team awareness and collaboration around the importance of trust by sharing experiences.
Building a means for communicating and working together as a team – focusing on cultural and individual differences
Helping team members get to know each other with an emphasis on developing trusting relationships

Ali is running a small family business and decide to have a proper HR department to ensure small functioning of workforce suggest him important factors that he covered in an organization

Organizational Development:
Employee Recruitment and Selection Process:
Employee Compensation Benefits:
Employee Relations:
Policy Formulation:

After completion of your graduation two jobs offers related to you 1 government and 0ther is private organization? You will prefer which one? And why?

Pros of Govt job:

Pension is what we want the most. 
Financial Services i.e. mortgages are offered at low interest rate.
Promotions and salary increases provide immediate social recognition and status to employees.
Higher positions provide greater administrative privileges.
Stronger immunity from job loss.
Some government organizations and agencies promise employment to relatives.
Working style and environment is relatively relaxed and laid-back.

Differentiate between job description and job specification.

Answer

Job description

The job description is a document that provides information regarding the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of the job. Job description takes on an even greater importance under the Americans with Disabilities Act because the description of essential job functions may be critical to a defense regarding reasonable accommodation.

1. Job Identification – contains the job title, the FLSA status, date, and possible space to indicate who approved the description, the location of the job, the immediate supervisor’s title, salary and/or pay scale.

2. Job Summary – should describe the general nature of the job, and includes only its major functions or activities.

3. Relationships – occasionally a relationships statement is included. It shows the jobholders’ relationships with others inside and outside the organization.

4. Responsibilities and Duties – The Department of Labor’s Dictionary of Occupational

Titles can be used for itemizing the job’s duties and responsibilities.

5. Standards of Performance – states the standards the employee is expected to achieve under each of the job description’s main duties and responsibilities.

Job specification

Minimum acceptable qualifications that a person should possess to perform the job are included in the job specification. Some of the items often included are requirements for education, experience, personality, and physical abilities.

Why job specification is considered an important tool in selection process?

JOB SPECIFICATION is a statement which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position.

It is helpful in preliminary screening in the selection procedure.
It helps in giving due justification to each job.
It also helps in designing training and development programs.
It helps the supervisors for counseling and monitoring performance of employees.
It helps in job evaluation.
It helps the management to take decisions regarding promotion, transfers and giving extra benefits to the employees.

How ISO has impacted organizational behavior?

Products or services all over the world have some properties attached to them. The satisfaction they provide, against the resources paid, is called quality of the product. ISO tried to put some basic properties of the product, by which we can understand that the product, will provide the benefit at least the level of the quality prescribed.

The organizations which follow the standards provide by the ISO for their product and services are globally accepted. So in the current situation if any organization would like to introduce their product globally they have to follow some rules and regulation prescribed by ISO.

Quality can be achieved by applying some strict rules in the transformation process of the organization. And to follow these rules is the responsibility for everyone in the organization.

Discuss some of the important steps that management takes to review the performance of employees?

To measure the employee performance, mostly organizations use confidential report (CR) and appraisal form. Normally this CR or appraisal form filled by the immediate supervisor. The performance depends upon, Ability, Attitude, and personality.

Supervisor has to judge the personal traits, Learning ability, Strength, and response of the employee. And how much the employee is loyal to the organization.

Who in organizations are responsible for managing change activities?

The employee does not have a responsibility to manage change - the employee's responsibility is no other than to do their best, which is different for every person and depends on a wide variety of factors (health, maturity, stability, experience, personality, motivation, etc.). Responsibility for managing change is with management and executives of the organization - they must manage the change in a way that employees can cope with it. The manager has a responsibility to facilitate and enable change, and all that is implied within that statement, especially to understand the situation from an objective standpoint (to 'step back', and be non-judgmental), and then to help people understand reasons, aims, and ways of responding positively according to employees' own situations and capabilities. Increasingly the manager's role is to interpret, communicate and enable - not to instruct and impose, which nobody really responds to well.

Current Final Term Paper For Fall 2013
Total Questions in Final Term Paper = 60 
Total Marks in Final Term Paper = 86
Total MCQ in Final Term Paper = 40 Each of 1 marks
Total Short Questions in Final Term Paper = 3 Each of 3 marks
Total Long Questions in Final Term Paper = 5 Each of 5 marks 
When do organizations opt for the process re engineering?
What are the ingredients of Total Quality Management?
How selection and socialization process helps an organization in strengthening its organizational culture?
How organizations can create an ethical culture?
Explain how a manager can raise a worker’s self-esteem and his productivity level?
What are some individual approaches for managing stress?
Describe the reasons behind using multiple evaluators while preparing a performance appraisal?
What are the three essential parts of the high performing organizations?

Current Final Term Paper For Fall 2013
Total Questions in Final Term Paper = 60 
Total Marks in Final Term Paper = 86
Total MCQ in Final Term Paper = 40 Each of 1 marks
Total Short Questions in Final Term Paper = 3 Each of 3 marks
Total Long Questions in Final Term Paper = 5 Each of 5 marks

What can be altered by the change agents? (3)

women show more emotional expressions then men do. Explain (5)

What can be the reason for expanding the business? (5)

what causes the organizational behavior to emerge? (3)

How counseling helps in performance of employees ?(3)

One question was related to Mechanistic Structure (5)

what can management do to implement ethical culture in an organization (5)

Dear Emaan!!!!

Thanks for sharing the links of mega files given above at the top but non of the file is being opened. I had no problems with my laptop/PC i had download 100s of files in pdf but in above links it gives the msg that files have gone corrupt cannot be opened please send me by email "mc120203079@vu.edu.pk". I am in need of these files of mgt 502 .

Thanks and regards for you and Sana sis who helped me by sharing the material for examz

Papers have been uploaded again in above discussion.

Thanks!

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