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Assignment No. 1 

 

 

Pak301

Fall 2016

Assignment No. 1                                                                    Total Marks: 10+5

Due Date: 21-11-2016     

                

Objectives:

To asses students’ knowledge of the subject and to motivate them towards conceptual knowledge and practical application of the subject.

 

Instructions

  • Late assignments will not be accepted.
  • If the file is corrupt or problematic, it will be marked zero.
  • Plagiarism will never be tolerated. Plagiarism occurs when a student uses work done by someone else as if it was his or her own; however, taking the ideas from different sources and to express it in your own words will be encouraged.
  • If any assignment is found copied work, no marks will be awarded and the case may be referred to the head of the academics for disciplinary action.
  • No assignment will be accepted via e-mail.
  • The file should be in Word doc form; the font color should be preferably black and font size can be 12 Times New Roman.

 

 

 

  • What is the role of Allama Iqbal in identifying the political future of the Muslims of Subcontinent? Justify your answer with five valid points. 10  marks
  • How did the Indian Muslims organize themselves to defend their political interests in the Subcontinent? Justify your answer with any five points. 5 marks

 

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Assignment No. 1 

 

 

Pak301

Fall 2016

Assignment No. 1                                                                    Student ID: bc160403076

                

 

 

  • What is the role of Allama Iqbal in identifying the political future of the Muslims of Subcontinent? Justify your answer with five valid points.

Ans:

Ideology of Muslim Political Future and Allam Iqbal

Allam Iqbal delivered lecture on Islam in Aligarh (1930). At Allahabad, he presided over the meeting and delivered his famous address.

In this address, he evaluated the importance the role of Islam in the lives of Muslims of British India. He Explained that Islam offer and ethical order, socio-political structure, legal framework, code of life, culture and civilization.

No political arrangement may be acceptable without recognizing the reality.

  • If the Muslims have an opportunity to develop in accordance with their Islamic civilization and tradition, they would be willing to sacrifice their lives of India,
  • Federalism can’t succeed without recognizing the national identity of the Muslims.
  • Territorial redistributions of British India on the basis of religion has become need of time.
  • Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan be amalgamated into a state, self-government within the British empire or without it.
  • Islam is a people building force in India that has given moral consciousness and political identity to the people. 

 

  • How did the Indian Muslims organize themselves to defend their political interests in the Subcontinent? Justify your answer with any five points.

 

The year 1857 brought decline to the Muslim rule in India. Muslims and Hindus participated in War of Independence but the British held only Muslims responsible for the rebellion.

1.      Partition of Bengal: 1905:

Muslims were very happy on the partition as this this had enabled them to promote their life conditions. It was rightly and opportunity for compensation. The Muslim community supported it strongly but Hindus retaliated furiously saying it division of motherland.

2.      The Shimla Deputation: 1906:

Shimla Deputation was in line with a kind of thinking that was developing amongst the Muslims during that time, For Example; they had certain interests and they must stand up to protect their rights and unless they do that their objective would not be achieved.

3.      Formation of the Muslim League (Dec-30-1960)

After the meeting of Mohammedan Educational Conference, the Muslim leader met to set up The All India Muslim League.

4.   Change in the Goal of the Muslim League 1913:

In 1913, the League changed its goals:

  • Self govt. under the British Crown keeping in view the peculiar conditions in India.
  • Good relation with other communities’ cooperation with any party working for similar goals.

This change brought the Muslim League and Congress closer. In this way, the era of cooperation between Hindus and Muslim set in.

 

5.      Lucknow Pact 1916:

The Lucknow pact was the product of Hindu-Muslims unity envisaged by M.A.Jinnah.

Role of the Quaid-e-Azam

Jinnah did a lot to unite the two nations along with the recognition of the right of Muslims. The constitutional proposal was approved:

  • 1/3 seats for Muslims in the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • Separate Electorate
  • Half members of the Executive Council to be elected by the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • Commissioned ranks of the army for Indian.
  • Expansion of Provincial Legislative Councils
  • Half members of the Governor’s Executive Council be elected by Provincial Legislative Councils
  • Weightage to minorities in provinces.

Gains from Muslims Point of View

  • Separate Electorate
  • 1/3 Muslims seats in Central Legislature.
  • Unofficial bill, if opposed by 3/4 member of a community, it will not be passed.

1 Prelude
2 Iqbal's Role in Pakistan Movement
3 Iqbal's Idea about Nationhood
4 Iqbal's Political Life
5 Iqbal and Two Nation Theory
6 Pakistan's Sketch
7 Ideology of Pakistan and Iqbal 8 Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------


Prelude
Allama Mohammad Iqbal was born on 9th November 1877 in Sialkot. After seeking early education, he was admitted to Government College Lahore, where he obtained M.A. degree in Philosophy. He left for England for higher studies in 1905. In 1907, he obtained the Degree of Doctorate (Ph.D.) from Munich University.
Iqbal's Role in Pakistan Movement
Following are some key areas where Allam Iqbal's role led to Pakistan's creation.

Iqbal's Idea about Nationhood
Allama Iqbal was the greatest philospher and poet of the present era. Alongwith this, he possessed a view about political affairs. He awakened the feeling of Muslim Nationhood among the Muslims of India through his poetry and told them about the propaganda of West about Muslims.
When the Hindu philosphers presented this philosphy that a nation is born throughout the country and when Maulana Hussain Ahmed Madni seconded it, then Iqbal reacted strongly towards it. His thinking and poetry reflect the Two Nation Theory and his poetry awakened the feeling of Islamic nationality among the Muslims of India. This sense of a single unity was a major factor in the creation of Pakistan.

Iqbal's Political Life
Allama Iqbal made his debut in politics when he was elected as the member of Punjab's Legislative Assembly in 1926. During the elections of 1937, when Quaid-e-Azam started the reconstruction of the Muslim Leaague, Allama Iqbal stood besides him. He not only supported Quaid-e-Azam and the Muslim League wholeheartedly, but he also respected Quaid-e-Azam's point of view.

Iqbal and Two Nation Theory
Allama Iqbal firmly believed that the Muslims of India have a separate identity and to protect this identity, the establishment of a separate homeland for the Muslims of India was necessary. On 28th March 1909, he rejected the invitation from the secular party "Minswa Lodge" highligting the fact that:
"I have been a keen supporter of this theory that religious differences in this country should end and even now I practise this principle. But, now I have started to believe that separate national identity for the Muslims and the Hindus is necessary for their survival."
In 1930, in the Annual Session of Muslim League at Allahbad, Iqbal said:
"India is a continent of human groups belonging to different races, speaking different languages and professing different religions. Their behaviour is not at all determined by a common race conciousness. I therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best intrest of India and Islam."
Pakistan's Sketch
Allama Iqbal's Presidential Adress at Allahbad in 1930 determined the political path of the Muslims of sub-continent. In his adress, he in clear words said:
"I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and Balochistan been combined into a single state".
He further stated that:
"The formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the north west India."
Thus, Iqbal demanded a sovereign independent Muslim state even before the Muslim League demanded it in Pakistan's Resolution.

Ideology of Pakistan and Iqbal
Iqbal was strictly against nationalism. He considered all the Muslims to be a part of One Ummah. For him, a Muslim in any part of the world was part of a brotherly relation. He considered nationalism to be a coffin for the Muslim Umma.
Thus, highlighting the limitations and disadvantages of nationalism, Iqbal gave the philosphy of a "Millat-e-Islamia" and this philosphy became the basis of Pakistan's ideology.

Conclusion
In short, the personality of Allama Iqbal has left indelible marks in history. He tried to awaken the Muslims of India through his philosphy, poetry and politics. He gave the idea of independence to the Muslims of India. Iqbal died on 21st April, 1938. He was buried infront of the "Badshahi Mosque" in "Huzori Bagh."

Pak301
Assignment No.1
QUESTION# 01
What is the role of Allama Iqbal in identifying the political future of the Muslims of Subcontinent? Justify your answer with five valid points. 10 marks
Answer:
Allama Iqbal was the greatest philospher and poet of the present era. Alongwith this, he possessed a view about political affairs. He awakened the feeling of Muslim Nationhood among the Muslims of India through his poetry and told them about the propaganda of West about Muslims.
Allama Iqbal’s Presidential Address at Allahbad in 1930 determined the political path of the Muslims of sub-continent. In his adress, he in clear words said:
“I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sindh and Balochistan been combined into a single state”.
In 1930,Allama Iqbal presented his mature political opinion on the political fate of Indian Muslims in his presedential address at Allahbad at the annual session of Muslim League.He said:
“I am fully convinced that the Muslims of India will ultimately have to
establish a separate homeland as they could not live with the Hindus in the United States.
In 1931 and 1932 he represented the Muslims of India in the Round Table Conferences held in England to discuss the issue of the political future of India.
“Sir” Muhammad Iqbal therefore, either opportunistically or ideologically, whereas history written by hagiographic as well as Western scribes makes it out to be due to the “dire” political reality of Muslims in India, took over from where his Cambridge compatriot Choudhary Rahmat Ali, Founder,
Pakistan National Movement, had left his 1933 “now or never” template for partitioning India.
The empire had cultivated and anointed the right asset for pushing the real coup de grâce to the Indian subcontinent forward in the next baby-step.
Fathering the right political demand and a national movement for a “Muslim
State”.
Muhammad Iqbal deliberately spun a specious dogma by using Islam as the pretext for the underlying irreconcilable differences between the two peoples, Hindus and Muslims.
Muhammad Iqbal's two nation advocacy was similarly harvested by the Muslim League political leaders to bring Muslim public out into the streets demanding a separate nation after their sensitivities were appropriately
“tickled”.
QUESTION# 02:
How did the Indian Muslims organize themselves to defend their political interests in the Subcontinent? Justify your answer with any five points. 5 marks.
Answer:
The Muslim nationalism is manifested with the sublime principles to implement like:
1.Rule of Law, socio-economic justice, equity and fair play.
2.Equality of opportunity to all citizens irrespective of caste, sect, religion or region.
3.Religious and Cultural tolerance.
4.Respect for human dignity and rights.
5.Protection of the rights and interests of non-Muslims and freedom to practice their beliefs and religions.
These principles are enshrined in the constitutions. We ought to work towards realization of these goals in reality and create institutions and processes that reflect these principles and values.

1:- All India Muslim League had been founded in Dhaka to promote loyalty to the British and to protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India. Thus the concept of
‘separate electorates’ was put forward to dawn a new day for the Indian Muslims.

2:- The Two-Nation Theory served as the basis of demand for Pakistan by the Muslims in British India. There are two major nations in British India. The Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations.

3:-The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority.

4:-Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards.

5:-Hindi-Urdu Controversy

Hindu revivalist movements turned more against the Muslims. Hindu nationalism was rival to the Muslim nationalism. The Indian nationalism forced Muslims to organize themselves politically to defend their interests effectively. After 1857, Hindi-Urdu Controversy was the major assault by the Hindus on Muslim heritage and legacy of the great Muslim Empire. Hindus were biased against Urdu as it was the Muslims’ language. They demanded Hindi as the official language replacing Urdu. There were demonstrations against Urdu by the Hindus in Banaras in 1867. It was the start of the Hindi-Urdu controversy. On the very issue, Sir Syed foretold about the unstable future of Hindu-Muslim unity. Hindus struggled vigorously to replace Urdu by Hindi in the offices. This enhanced the importance of the sense of Muslim separatism.

The Muslim nationalism is manifested with the sublime principles to implement like:
1. Rule of Law, socio-economic justice, equity and fair play.

2. Equality of opportunity to all citizens irrespective of caste, sect, religion or region.

3. Religious and Cultural tolerance.

4. Respect for human dignity and rights.

5. Protection of the rights and interests of non-Muslims and freedom to practice their beliefs and religions.

These principles are enshrined in the constitutions. We ought to work towards realization of these goals in reality and create institutions and processes that reflect these principles and values.

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