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• How did Muhammad Ali Bogra adopt a middle course to resolve the issue of representation between East and West Pakistan? Enlist any five relevant points. 10 marks
• How did the political instability shatter the whole political system of Pakistan after independence (1947-1958)? Enlist any five points. 5 marks

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Assignment no 2

Question -01) 
The issue of equal powers to both Houses attracted a lot of criticism and some people maintained that since the lower house represented the people it should have more power. But generally this proposal was accepted although the parliament was divided on the response to the formula. Another significant measure during this period which facilitated the problem of constitution making was the settlement of the language issue. In 1954 the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan decided that the Bengali and Urdu would be the national languages of Pakistan. This decision facilitated the constitution making process.
The major features of the formula were:
The federal legislature would comprise of two houses – the House of Unit and the House of People. The total strength of the House of Units would be 50, which was to be equally divided among five units namely, East Bengal, Punjab, NWFP, Frontier States, Sindh and Khairpur, Balochistan. The House of Units would be elected indirectly by the legislature of the units. The Bogra formula reduced the 9 units of West Pakistan into 4 units.
The House of People was to have a total number of three hundred members, to be divided among the five units in this manner – East Bengal 165 members, Punjab 75, NWFP 13, Sindh 19, State of Khairpur 1, Balochistan 3, and Bahawalpur State 7.
Both Houses were to have equal powers in all matters. There was a provision for a joint session of the two for the election of the Head of the State and for the disposal of votes of confidence.
In case of a difference of opinion between the two Houses, a joint session of the two Houses would be called and the matter would be decided by a majority vote, provided that the majority included thirty percent of the members from each zone.
It maintained the principle of parity between East and West Pakistan in combined Houses, with 175 seats for each zone. So in total, both the wings were to have 175 seats each in the two Houses of the Legislative Assembly.
In place of the Board of Ulama, the Supreme Court was given the power to decide if a law was in accordance with the basic teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
The two houses of the Legislative Assembly formed the Electoral College for the Presidential elections and the President was to be elected for a term of 5 years

Question – 02)

A. Failure of Political leadership
In political system of Pakistan, feudal had a great hold in politics in center and provinces. They had been get good position in politics; on the other hand leaders are mostly depended on them. Feudal or landlords had a hold on public and their votes. These are not sincere with public but had own interests in government. So in the Pakistan political history, most of the political parties was depended on feudal because they provides money and votes for political parties and got own interests. The other class of people who interfered in politics and leaders of the parties are lawyers. These people are well dominated in politics in Pakistan political history. They have knowledge about politics and government. 
Jinnah was also lawyer and great leader of subcontinent Muslims. Since 1947to 1956, in our country had no young and labour leadership, who had plays any role in political stability or settled the issues regarding to politics. We had not that type of leaders or politicians because local political parties were to weak and political activities were hands of big parties. The other influence on leadership was the piers and Ghadi Neshanic. These people were belonged to religious group and some of them had political parties and became leaders. But these were also had own interests. They were not work for public or country.
B. Heads of state involve in instable government
According to parliamentary form of government, the head of state had no role to play in politics. In Pakistan democratic era, years between 1951to 1956 is called weak democratic period. Ghulam Mohammad and Iskindar Mirza were the head of the state. These heads violated that rule as a chief of the country were involve in political activities.
They had hold on parties, government and bureaucracy. They also play major role to make weak political parties and government. They were involved to make instable government at center and in provinces. Ghulam Mohammad and Iskindar Mirza were belonged to bureaucracy. In this period no election were held. Legislature was elected indirectly. Only in 1954 election were held in provincial level. The other action by Ghulam Mohammad which was out of democratic law, the dismissal of prime minister Nazim-ud- Din who had a vote of confidence in assembly.
No voice was heard against prime minister Dismissal. No actions of assembly like discussion or notice were taken for his remove. This act was against the democratic rule and show the where no voice heard. For own interest he appointed Bogra as a prime minister. Relationships between Bogra and Ghulam Mohammad were just like an owner and a servant. “He was only show-boy” .
C. Political Parties of Pakistan 1947 to 1956
lived in Awami Muslim League:
On June 1949, Awami Muslim League was launched in East Pakistan. In East Pakistan Bhashani as president, Ata Ur Rehman as vice President, Shamsul Haq as General Sectary. The party main objectives in East Pakistan were provincial issues and economic situation. After that provincial Awami League was emerged. The prominent leader of Muslim joined the Awami League. Pir Manki launched Awami party in NWFP.
The Pakistan National Congress
Indian National Congress was the political organization in sub-continent before partition. After the separation INC organize The Pakistan National Congress in Pakistan. Its leader was S.C Chattopadhyaya and it’s got fifteen seats in constitution assembly of Pakistan. It was major opposition party in post independence period. It was represented the minorities of Pakistan, and had main strength in East Wing. The party supported Bengali Language controversy, opposed the Objective Resolution and 1st BPC report. Almost 20% Hindus East Pakistan and party had got 28 seats in East Pakistan legislative Assembly Election of 1954.
Jamaat- e-Islami
Jamaat-I-Islami was well organized political party which has Islamic agenda. It was established by Maulana Abul Ala Maududi in 1941. The main objective of the party was to create Islamic state and society.Firstly, it was against the creation of Pakistan, because chief organizer was thought that All Muslim of the world is Ummah. Muslims of India are part of that Nation. When Pakistan came into being, these people shifted into Pakistan to established Pakistan an Islamic state. Its members mostly criticized PML and even Jinnah.
Pakistan Muslim League
Pakistan Muslim League was the major party in movement of Pakistan and also in initial phase of Pakistan politics. The reason behind its success was its manifesto “Muslim of the sub-continent wanted to build up their lives in accordance with the teaching of Islam”.PML party main objective (creation of Muslim state) had got and Pakistan established as a separate state. But after the death of Jinnah, very soon League lose its position because it was starting divide into many fictions. When Jinnah was died, no one is able to fulfill his position in party as well as in country. Lack of honest leadership political parties were in weak position. Most of leaders changed their position in different parties because of own interest.
Weak political parties
Political parties play an important role in political system of any country. It also had important in democratic system. In Pakistan post independence period, Pakistan Muslim League, Jamaat-i-Islami, Awami Muslim League and Pakistan National Congress were the major parties in politics.
The other parties were Nizam-i-Islam, Azad Pakistan Party, Sind Awami Mahaz, Communist party. The major party in Pakistan movement was declined and other parties were formed in Pakistan. After the Jinnah and Liquat Ali, it could not found leadership. The politicians were work for self interest and there were no party who worked for country development. 

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